Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s dating of ancient texts

Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of the Ramayana to 12209 BCE

Part 9 of 10 — The Grouping of Seasons and Lunar Months from the Vedic age till Now

In the previous eight articles of this series, Oak’s dating of the Rāmāyaṇa to 12209 BCE has been refuted. There are four Astronomy Poison Pills for the dating of the Rāmāyaṇa according to Oak [1]. The first Astronomy Poison Pill of “Caitra being in the Śarad season” was refuted in Part 2 [2]. I pointed out that according to the evidence in the Rāmāyaṇa, Caitra was in the Vasanta season. I refuted the second Astronomy Poison Pill — that of “Āśvina month being part of the Vasanta season” in Part 4 [3]. I pointed out that Caitra, not Āśvina month, was part of the Vasanta season based on clear evidence in the Rāmāyaṇa. I refuted the third Astronomy Poison Pill — that of the “Sun setting near pushya during Hemant season” in Part 3 [4]. I pointed out that Araṇyakāṇḍa 16.12 in the Rāmāyaṇa does not specify the position of the Sun. I refuted the fourth Astronomy Poison Pill — that of “the description of Brahmarāśi/Vega/Abhijit as pole star” in Part 5 [5]. I showed that Brahmarāśi cannot be the Abhijit (Vega) star because Mars can never be near Vega.

I refuted the assertion by Oak that a unique event involving a comet took place in 12209 BCE in Part 6 [6]. I pointed out that a comet’s trajectory and magnitude cannot be predicted for even 100 years and Oak’s date is based on software-generated illusion. I refuted Oak’s claim that Rāvaṇa’s Laṅkā was located on the Equator in Part 7 [7]. I pointed out that Laṅkā on the Equator was an astronomical concept and a hypothetical city. I argued that there is only one Rama Setu, and it connects India with Sri Lanka.

I refuted Oak’s claim of over 575 corroborations for the 12209 BCE date in the Rāmāyaṇa in Part 8 [8]. I showed that Oak does not have even one corroboration by going over each claim that is described in the book “The Historic Rama”. I should point out that despite repeated requests in the भारतीयविद्वत्परिषत् mailing group and on Twitter [9], Oak has failed to make public the exact details of 575+ corroborations he claims for 12209 BCE date of the Rāmāyaṇa. In the final two parts of this series, I will focus on the fundamental basis of Oak’s dating of the Rāmāyaṇa.

1. Vartak-Oak Hypothesis

As stated in two earlier articles, Vartak proposed that the grouping of seasons and lunar months changes by one month every 2,160 years due to precession, which was adopted by Oak, who uses a period of 2,000 years for the change of one lunar month [10–11]. I have called this hypothesis the “Vartak-Oak hypothesis” [10]. According to this hypothesis, seasons consist of different pairs of luni-solar months as time changes. Based on the information given by Oak [12], Table 1 summarizes the important configurations according to the Vartak-Oak hypothesis [11].

According to Oak, Āśvina and Kārttika were part of Vasanta season, and Caitra and Vaiśākha were part of Śarad season during Rāmāyaṇa times. I have shown in Part 2 [2] and Part 4 [3] of this series that this is not the case. Wherever months and seasons or months or seasons are explicitly stated, they always conform to the standard configuration. I had discussed the standard configuration of seasons and months in Part 2 of the series [2].

2. The Vedic/Hindu Calendar

The division of a year according to the Vedic/Hindu calendar is shown in Table 2. The year is divided in two, Uttarāyaṇa and Dakṣināyana. Uttarāyaṇa is the period from winter solstice to summer solstice, and Dakṣināyana is the period from summer solstice to winter solstice. There were different ways to divide the year into seasons. The common way was to divide the year into six seasons of two-month durations: Śiśira (late winter), Vasanta (spring), Grīṣma (summer), Varṣā (rainy season), Śarada (autumn), and Hemanta (early winter). In this division, the first three seasons were part of Uttarāyaṇa, and the last three seasons were part of Dakṣināyana. Two alternative lists of months were in use. One list named the months as Tapa, Tapasya, Madhu, Mādhava, Śukra, Śuchi, Nabha, Nabhasya, Īśa, Urja, Saha, and Sahasya. Another list is that of Māgha, Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyeṣṭha, Āṣāḍha, Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada (Proshṭhapada), Āśvina, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa (Agrahāyaṇa), and Pauṣa. Generally, Tapa was used interchangeably with Māgha, Tapasya with Phālguna, Madhu with Caitra, and so on as shown in Table 2.

With this information, let us look at the combination of months and seasons that we find in the Indian texts going back to the Vedas.

3. Explicit Mentions of Seasons and Months in Indian texts

I. Taittirīya Saṃhitā IV.4.11.1

The text is as follows:

madhuśca mādhavaśca vāsantikāvṛtū śukraśca śuciśca graiṣmāvṛtū nabhaśca nabhasyaśca vārṣikāvṛtū iṣaścorjaśca śāradāvṛtū sahaśca sahasyaśca haimantikāvṛtū tapaśca tapasyaśca śaiśirāvṛtū

Here is the English translation by Keith [13]:

(Ye are) Madhu and Mādhava, the months of spring. (Ye are) Śukra and Śuci, the months of summer. (Ye are) Nabha and Nabhasya, the months of rain. (Ye are) Iṣa and Ūrja, the months of autumn. (Ye are) Saha and Sahasya, the months of winter. (Ye are) Tapa and Tapasya, the months of cool season.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

II. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa IV.3.1.14–19

The text is as follows:

athāto gṛhṇātyeva | upayāmagṛhīto ‘si madhave tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘si mādhavāya tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva vāsantikau sa yadvasanta oṣadhayo jāyante vanaspatayaḥ pacyante teno haitau madhuśca mādhavaśca.

upayāmagṛhīto ‘si | śukrāya tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘si śucaye tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva graiṣmau sa yadetayorbaliṣṭhaṃ tapati teno haitau śukraśca śuciśca.

upayāmagṛhīto ‘si nabhase tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘si nabhasyāya tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva vārṣikāvamuto vai divo varṣati teno haitau nabhaśca nabhasyaśca.

upayāmagṛhīto ‘si | iṣe tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘syūrje tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva śāradau sa yacaradyūrgrasa oṣadhayaḥ pacyante teno haitāviṣaścorjaśca.

upayāmagṛhīto ‘si sahase tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘si sahasyāya tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva haimantikau sa yaddhemanta imāḥ prajāḥ sahaseva svaṃ vaśamupanayate teno haitau sahaśca sahasyaśca.

upayāmagṛhīto ‘si tapase tvetyevādhvaryurgṛhṇātyupayāmagṛhīto ‘si tapasyāya tveti pratiprasthātaitāveva śaiśirau sa yadetayorbaliṣṭhaṃ śyāyati teno haitau tapaśca tapasyaśca.

Here is the English translation by Eggeling [14]:

14. Now he draws the cups (for the seasons) therefrom, with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Madhu!’ the Adhvaryu takes (the first); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Madhava!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the second). These two are the spring (months): because in spring plants sprout and trees are brought to ripeness, therefore these two are Madhu (sweet) and Mādhava.

15. With ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Śukra!’ the Adhvaryu draws (the third); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Suchi!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the fourth). These two are the summer (months): because during them it burns fiercest, therefore these two are Śukra (clear) and Suchi (bright).

16. With ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Nabhas!’ the Adhvaryu draws (the fifth); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Nabhasya!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the sixth). These two are (the months) of the rainy season: it rains from yonder sky, and hence these two are Nabhas (mist, cloud) and Nabhasya.

17. With ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Ish (sap)!’ the Adhvaryu draws (the seventh); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Ūrj (food)!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the eighth). These two are the autumn (months): because in autumn food (ūrj) and juice, (namely) plants, ripen, therefore these two are Isha and Ūrja.

18. With ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Sahas!’ the Adhvaryu draws (the ninth); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Sahasya!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the tenth). These two are the winter (months): because the winter by force (sahas) brings these creatures into his power, therefore these two are Saha and Sahasya.

19. With ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Tapas!’ the Adhvaryu draws (the eleventh); with ‘Thou art taken with a support: thee for Tapasya!’ the Pratiprasthātri (the twelfth). These two are (the months) of the dewy season: because during them it freezes most severely, therefore these two are Tapas and Tapasya.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

III. Rāmāyaṇa 4.26.14

Sarga 26, Śloka 14 of the Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa of the Rāmāyaṇa mentions that Varṣā season started with the month of Śrāvaṇa as shown below:

This is as listed in Table 2 and under standard configuration in Table 1. Please note that this verse refers to the four-month long Varṣā season also known as Cāturmāsya.

IV. Mahābhārata, 3.182.16 Gītā Press

The text and Gītā Press translation are as follows:

Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli is as follows [15] (Please note that it is in 3.181):

And, O Janamejaya, the holiest night, that of the full moon in the month of Kartika in the season of autumn, was spent by them while dwelling there!

The season Śarad and month Kārttika conform to the standard configuration.

V. Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa 21.151

The text is as follows:

tapastapasyau madumādhavau ca śukraḥśuciścāyanamuttaraṃ syāt /
nabhonabhasyāviṣaūrjasaṃjñau sahaḥsahasyāviti dakṣiṇaṃ syāt //

Here is the English translation by Tagare [16]:

The months of Māgha, Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha constitute Uttarāyaṇa (Northern transit). The months of Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada, Āśvina, Kārttika,Mārgaśīrṣa and Pauṣa constitute Dakṣiṇāyaṇa.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

VI. Vayu Purana 50.201

The text is as follows:

tapastapasyau madumādhavau ca śukraḥ śuciścāyanamuttaraṃ syāt /
nabho nabhasyo’tha iṣuḥ sahaurjaḥ sahaḥ sahasyāviti dakṣiṇaṃ syāt //

Here is the English translation by Tagare [17]:

The six months, viz. Māgha, Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha are the months of Uttarāyaṇa (northern transit of the sun). The six months, viz. Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada, Āśvina, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa and Pauṣa are the months of Dakṣiṇāyaṇa (southern transit of the sun).

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

VII. Manu Smṛti 9.304

The text is given below:

The translation of Manu Smṛti 9.304 by Bühler is shown below [18]:

As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of the rainy season, even so let the king, taking upon himself the office of Indra, shower benefits on his kingdom.

It mentions the four months of the rainy season. The commentary by Kullūka on Manu Smṛti 9.304 says that four-month seasons start with Śrāvaṇa.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

VIII. Suśruta Saṃhitā 1.6.6–7

The text is given below:

tatra māghādayo dvadaśa māsāḥ dvimāsikamṛtuṃ kṛtvā ṣaḍṛtavo bhavanti te śiśiravasantagrīṣmavarṣāśaradhemantāḥ teṣāṃ tapastapasyau śiśiraḥ madhumādhavau vasantaḥ śuciśukrau grīṣmaḥ nabhonabhasyau varṣāḥ iṣorjau śarat sahaḥsahasyau hemanta iti

ta ete śitoṣṇavarṣalakṣaṇāścandrādityayoḥ kālavibhāgakaratvādayane dve bhavato dakṣiṇamuttaraṃ ca tayordakṣiṇaṃ varṣāśaradhemantāḥ teṣu bhagavānāpyāyate somaḥ amlalavaṇamadhurāśca rasā balavanto bhavanti uttarottaraṃ ca sarvaprāṇināṃ balamabhivardhate | uttaraṃ ca śiśiravasantagrīṣmāḥ teṣu bhagavānāpyāyate’rkaḥ tiktakaṣāyakaṭukāśca rasā balavanto bhavanti uttarottaraṃ ca sarvaprāṇināṃ balamapahīyate

The English translation of the text is as follows [19]:

The twelve months such as, Māgha, etc. are divided into six seasons such as, Winter, Spring, Summer, Rains, Autumn and Hemanta, each consisting of two months. The two months known as Tapas and Tapasya (Māgha and Phālguna) constitute the season of winter. Spring consists of two months called Madhu and Mādhava (Chaitra and Vaishāka). Summer is marked by two months known as Shuchi and Shukra (Jaistha and Āshādha). The rains or the rainy season is marked by two months called Nabhas and Nabhasya (Shrāvana and Bhādra). The two months known as Isha and Urja (Āshvina and Kārtika) constitute what is called the season of Autumn. Hemanta is marked by two months called Sahas and Sahasya (Agrahāyana and Pousha). These six seasons are respectively characterised by cold, heat, rains etc.

The two Ayanas are ushered in by the sun and the moon changing their respective courses in the heavens (passing over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn) as the measures of time. The rains, autumn and Hemanta follow one another in succession when the sun is over the Tropic of Capricorn or is in the Winter Solstice (Dakshināyanam) and the moon gains in strength in this part of the year. Rasas (Serum or sap) possessed of acid, saline and sweet tastes, grow strong and become dominant when the sun is over the Tropic of Capricorn (Dakshināyanam) and all beings gain in strength and energy more and more. Winter, spring and summer mark the passing of the sun over the Summer Solstice (Uttarāyanam). The sun grows stronger in heat and light, and saps (rasas) of bitter, pungent and sour tastes increase in intensity, and all animals gradually begin to lose strength and energy.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

IX. Jain text Sūrya Prajñapti 10.10

The Jain text Sūrya Prajñapti 10.10 divides the year in seasons and months as shown in the two left columns in Table 3. The two right columns show the division of the year in seasons of two-months’ duration. The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

X. Arthasastra 2.20.62–72

The text is as follows:

dvau māsāvṛtuḥ ||62|| śrāvaṇaḥ proṣṭhapadaśca varṣāḥ ||63|| āśvayujaḥ kārtikaśca śarat ||64|| mārgaśīrṣaḥ pauṣaaśca hemantaḥ ||65|| māghaḥ phālgunaśca śiśiraḥ ||66|| caitro vaiśākhaśca vasantaḥ ||67|| jyeṣṭhāmūlīya āṣāḍhaśca grīṣmaḥ ||68|| śiśirādyuttarāyaṇaṃ ||69|| varṣādi dakṣiṇāyanaṃ ||70|| dvyayanaḥ saṃvatsaraḥ ||71||

The English translation of the text is as follows [20]:

Two months make one ritu (season). Srāvana and proshthapada make the rainy season (varshā). Asvayuja and Kārthíka make the autumn (sarad). Mārgasīrsha and Pausha make the winter (hemanta). Māgha and Phalguna make the dewy season (sisira). Chaitra and Vaisākha make the spring (vasanta). Jyeshthāmūlīya and Ashādha make the summer (grishma). Seasons from sisira and upwards are the summer-solstice (uttarāyana), and (those) from varshā and upwards are the winter solstice (dakshināyana). Two solstices (ayanas) make one year (samvatsara).

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

XI. Buddhist text Divyāvadāna, Chapter 33: Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna

The months and seasons are listed in Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna, which is the 33rd chapter in the Buddhist text Divyāvadāna currently dated to 2nd century CE [21].

The text is as follows [22]:

varṣāṇāṃ prathame māse puṣyanakṣatramamāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, śravaṇā pūrṇamāsyām| …

varṣāṇāṃ dvitīye māse’maghā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, bhādrapadā pūrṇamāsyām| …

varṣāṇāṃ tṛtīye māse phalgunyamāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, aśvinī pūrṇamāsyām| …

varṣāṇāṃ caturthe māse citrā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, kṛttikā pūrṇamāsyām| …

hemantānāṃ prathame māse’nurādhā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, mṛgaśirā pūrṇamāsyām| …

hemantānāṃ dvitīye māse amāvāsyāyāṃ jyeṣṭhā bhavati, puṣyaḥ pūrṇamāsyām | …

hemantānāṃ tṛtīye māse pūrvāṣāḍhā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, maghā pūrṇamāsyām| …

hemantānāṃ caturthe māse śravaṇā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, phalgunī pūrṇamāsyām| …

grīṣmāṇāṃ prathame māse uttarabhādrapadā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, citrā pūrṇamāsyām| …

grīṣmāṇāṃ dvitīye māse’śvinī amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, viśākhā pūrṇamāsyām| …

grīṣmāṇāṃ tṛtīye māse kṛttikā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, jyeṣṭhā pūrṇamāsyām| …

grīṣmāṇāṃ caturthe māse mṛgaśirā amāvāsyāyāṃ bhavati, uttarāṣāḍhā pūrṇamāsyām|

The English translation is as follows [translated by the author]:

In the first month of Varṣā season, (moon was in) Puṣya nakṣatra on no moon day and Śravaṇa on full moon day. … In the second month of Varṣā season, (moon was in) Maghā on no moon day and Bhādrapadā on full moon day. … In the third month of Varṣā season, (moon was in) Phālgunī on no moon day and Aśvinī on full moon day. … In the fourth month of Varṣā season, (moon was in) Citrā on no moon day and Kṛttikā on full moon day. …

In the first month of Hemanta season, (moon was in) Anurādhā nakṣatra on no moon day and Mṛgaśirā on full moon day. … In the second month of Hemanta season, (moon was in) Jyeṣṭhā on no moon day and Puṣya on full moon day. … In the third month of Hemanta season, (moon was in) Pūrvāṣāḍhā on no moon day and Maghā on full moon day. … In the fourth month of Hemanta season, (moon was in) Śravaṇa on no moon day and Phālgunī on full moon day. …

In the first month of Grīṣma season, (moon was in) Uttarabhādrapadā nakṣatra on no moon day and Citrā on full moon day. … In the second month of Grīṣma season, (moon was in) Aśvinī on no moon day and Viśākhā on full moon day. … In the third month of Grīṣma season, (moon was in) Kṛttikā on no moon day and Jyeṣṭhā on full moon day. … In the fourth month of Grīṣma season, (moon was in) Mṛgaśirā on no moon day and Uttarāṣāḍhā on full moon day.

As the months are determined by the position of moon on full moon day, Divyāvadāna follows standard seasons and months as shown in Table 2.

XII. Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya Sūtrasthāna iii.1–2 and iii.4–5

Currently accepted date of Vāgbhaṭa, author of Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya, is around 600 CE [23]. Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya is one of the three most important texts of Ayurveda. It lists the seasons and months in Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya Sūtrasthāna iii.1–2 and iii.4–5.

The text is as follows:

māsairdvisaṃkhyairmāghādyaiḥ kramāt ṣaḍṛtavaḥ smṛtāḥ |

śiśiro’tha vasantaśca grīṣmo varṣāḥ śaradhimāḥ ||1||

śiśirādyāstribhistaistu vidyādayanamuttaram|

ādānaṃ ca tadādatte nṛṇāṃ pratidinaṃ balam ||2||

ṛtvo dakṣiṇāyanam varṣādayo visargaśca (4–5, only relevant parts of verses 4 and 5 quoted)

The English translation is as follows [24]:

The months starting with māgha, in combination of two, two succeeding months constitute the 6 seasons as śiśira, vasanta, grīṣma, varṣā, śarad and hemanta respectively.

Ādāna kāla — the three of them commencing with śiśira ṛtu (i.e., śiśira, vasanta and grīṣma) are characterised by the northern movement of the sun and is also called uttarāyana or ādāna kāla, because sun absorbs strength from living beings daily.

The remaining three seasons commencing from varṣā ṛtu (i.e., varṣā, śarad and hemanta) are characterized by the southern movement of the sun (dakṣiṇāyana) and is also called visarga kāla.

XIII. Kāvyamimāṃsā, Chapter 18

Rājaśekhara, author of Kāvyamimāṃsā, is currently dated between 880 and 920 CE [25]. Rājaśekhara has given the list of seasons and months in Kāvyamimāṃsā (Chapter 18, lines 4–16). The text is as follows:

caitrātparaṃ pratimāsaṃ mauhūrttikī divasavṛddhiḥ niśāhāniśca trimāsyāḥ; tataḥ paraṃ mauhūrttikī niśāvṛddhiḥ divasahāniśca | āśvayujātparataḥ punaretadeva viparītam | rāśito rāśyantarasaṅkramaṇamuṣṇabhāso māsaḥ, varṣādi dakṣiṇāyanaṃ śiśirādyuttarāyaṇaṃ dvyayanaḥ saṃvatsara iti sauraṃ mānam | … tatra nabhā nabhasyaśca varṣāḥ, iṣa ūrjaśca śarat, sahaḥ sahasyaśca hemantaḥ, tapastapasyaśca śiśiraḥ, madhurmādhavaśca vasantaḥ, śukraḥ śuciśca grīṣmaḥ |

The English translation is as follows [26]:

After Caitra, for three months, there is an increase of the day and a decrease of the night by one muhūrta per month; after that, there is an increase of the night and a decrease of the day by one muhūrta. After the month of Āśvayuja, the same is reversed. As per the solar calendar, a month is the passing of the sun from one constellation to the other, and the year is of two ayanas (half-years), the dakṣiṇāyana, starting with the monsoon, and the uttarāyaṇa, starting with śiśira. … Therein, (the months of) Nabhas and Nabhasya are the monsoon, Iṣa and Ūrja autumn, Sahas and Sahasya winter, Tapas and Tapasya śiśira, Madhu and Mādhava spring, and Śukra and Śuchi summer.

The seasons and months conform to the standard configuration.

XIV. Current descriptions

Current description of seasons and months as given in Hindupedia is shown below [27]:

Each year consists of six Ritus or seasons. Each Ritu comprises two Maasas or months and three such ritus constitute one kaala. Hence Aadaana and Visarga kaalas each consist of six months and three ritus. The six ritus and their characteristics can be summarized in the following table:

The seasons and months, according to Hindupedia, conform to the standard configuration. However, according to Wikipedia, there is a regional variation in the grouping of months and seasons [28]. North, West, and Central Indian calendars conform to the standard configuration of seasons and months. However, East Indian calendars, Bengali and Odia, have months shifted by one month compared to the standard configuration as seen below.

4. Effect of Precession on Seasons and Months

From the above lists of explicit mentions of seasons and months, it is clear that they conform to the standard configuration from the earliest times till now. However, the combination has changed in East Indian calendars. According to the “Vartak-Oak hypothesis,” the grouping of seasons and lunar months should have changed by one month every 2,000 years due to precession. Why there is no evidence of it in the Indian literature? Why has the standard configuration started to change now? I will provide an in-depth explanation in the concluding part of the series — “Fatal logical Errors in the Vartak-Oak Hypothesis”.

References:

1. https://nileshoak.wordpress.com/2017/08/02/astronomy-lynchpins-ramayana-mahabharata/.

2. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s astronomical dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | May, 2021 | Medium.

3. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | May, 2021 | Medium.

4. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | May, 2021 | Medium.

5. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | May, 2021 | Medium.

6. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | May, 2021 | Medium.

7. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of the Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | Jun, 2021 | Medium.

8. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of the Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | Jun, 2021 | Medium.

9. https://twitter.com/RamMohanRoy108.

10. Sushruta Samhita was NOT written over 7,500 years ago | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | Medium.

11. Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s Astronomical Dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE | by Dr. Raja Ram Mohan Roy | Apr, 2021 | Medium.

12. https://twitter.com/NileshOak/status/1206824487590727680.

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17. Tagare, G.V., The Vāyu Purāṇa, Part I, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987, page 345.

18. Bühler, G. (1886). “The Laws of Manu translated with extracts from seven commentaries”, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, p. 396.

19. Bhishagratna, K.K.L. (Editor) (1907). An English translation of The Sushruta Samhita based on original Sanskrit Text, Vol. 1-Sutrasthanam. Calcutta: Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna, pp. 46–47.

20. Shamasastry, R., Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Bangalore: Government Press, 1915, pp. 153–154.

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Note: June 26, 2021

I had tagged Oak in my tweet announcing the publication of this article. Oak did not respond to this announcement on Twitter.

The link to this article was also posted in the Google group भारतीयविद्वत्परिषत् by me. Oak is a member of this group. There was no reply from him in this group. I made another post in this group asking why Oak is not making public the list of 575+ corroborations. Dr. Saranathan tweeted my email and DG asked Oak to reply. Oak posted link to a recently made video and his books. To this I replied “debunked” and quoted Part 6 of my article. Oak did not respond further in this thread.

Next day I tagged Oak in my tweet addressed to Prachyam, which is making three movies based on Oak’s work. I asked Prachyam if they are going to make movies on manufactured data as Oak has not made public the exact details of 575+ corroborations that Oak claims from the Rāmāyaṇa. Oak has not made the list public even after multiple requests. This generated responses and couple of replies from Oak but not what was expected from him. Instead of producing list of 575+ corroborations, he tried to evade, and I just reminded him to make the corroborations public. Even though I am openly accusing him of manufacturing data, Oak is not producing the data. You know what it means. It means that all these years he has been fooling people and made them believe in his nonsense based on manufactured data.

More about the author

I am a seeker of historical truths and am deeply interested in the heritage of India. I have earned a B.Tech. in Metallurgical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from The Ohio State University, USA. I have a deep interest in ancient Indian texts. My research besides Materials Science covers several different areas: Vedic cosmology, Vedic astronomy, Jain astronomy, and ancient Indian history.

Email: rajarammohanroy108@gmail.com

Next:

Refutation of Nilesh Oak’s astronomical dating of Ramayana to 12209 BCE: Part 10 of 10- Fatal logical Errors in the Vartak-Oak Hypothesis

Vedic Scholar, Materials Scientist, Author of books on Vedic Astronomy, Jain Astronomy, and Ancient Indian History